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 ONDRI’s Research Publications

Impact through publication

ONDRI’s unique cross-disease, cross-platform design bridges lab-based silos that are typical in research. This team science focused collaboration has led to novel findings that have already been published, or are at various stages of validation or review, and will be published shortly.

Please see below for ONDRI scientific articles published to date. These appear in chronological order. A short summary is provided for each publication, along with a link to its PubMed listing and abstract. Access to the full article is provided if the article is open-access. If it is not, then access through a university or personal membership is required to read the complete article.

Comparison of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Metrics in Normal-Appearing White Matter to Cerebrovascular Lesions and Correlation with Cerebrovascular Disease Risk Factors and Severity

October 2022
Journal: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
Lead Author: Seyyed M H Haddad

This study demonstrated the differences between conventional DTI metrics, FA, MD, AD, and RD, in cerebral vascular lesions and healthy tissue types. Therefore, incorporating DTI to characterize the integrity of the tissue microstructure could help to define the extent and severity of various brain vascular anomalies.

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Retinal nerve fibre layer in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

October 2022
Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Lead Author: Bryan M. Wong

Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), is diagnostic eye technology that is readily available in the community. Ongoing studies are examining whether SD-OCT can help diagnose neurodegenerative diseases in life. This study examined whether researchers could distinguish between the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer, and the macula, of study participants with presumed tauopathy (progressive supranuclear palsy) and those with presumed TDP43 proteinopathy (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and semantic variant primary progressive aphasia).

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Visits to the emergency department by community-dwelling people with dementia during the first 2 waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario: a repeated cross-sectional analysis

Visits to the emergency department by community-dwelling people with dementia during the first 2 waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario: a repeated cross-sectional analysis

July 2022
Journal: CMAJ Open
Lead Author: Laura C. Maclagan

Community-dwelling people with dementia have been affected by COVID-19 pandemic health risks and control measures that resulted in worsened access to health care and service cancellation. One critical access point in health systems is the emergency department. We aimed to determine the change in weekly rates of visits to the emergency department of community-dwelling people with dementia in Ontario during the first 2 waves of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with historical patterns.

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Increased brain volumetric measurement precision from multi-site 3D T1-weighted 3 T magnetic resonance imaging by correcting geometric distortions

June 2022
Journal: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Lead Author: Nuwan D. Nanayakkara

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner-specific geometric distortions may contribute to differences in resultant measurements by site, in multi-site studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether utilizing an existing geometric distortion correction protocol increases the precision of brain volumetric measurements in a multi-site multi-scanner study.

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Targeted copy number variant identification across the neurodegenerative disease spectrum

June 2022
Journal: Molecular Genetics and Genomics Medicine
Lead Author: Allison A. Dilliott

Although genetic factors are known to contribute to neurodegenerative disease susceptibility, there remains a large amount of heritability unaccounted for across the diagnoses. Copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to these phenotypes, but their presence and influence on disease state remains relatively understudied.

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Caregiving concerns and clinical characteristics across neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disorders in the Ontario neurodegenerative disease research initiative

Caregiving concerns and clinical characteristics across neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disorders in the Ontario neurodegenerative disease research initiative

June 2022
Journal: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Co-Lead Authors: Derek Beaton, Angela Roberts

Caregiving burden is a significant factor in clinical management of people living with neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. This ONDRI study utilized the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) to probe caregiver burden across the diseases ONDRI studies.

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Detecting accelerometer non-wear periods using change in acceleration combined with rate-of-change in temperature

May 2022
Journal: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Co-Lead Authors: Adam Vert, William E. McIlroy & Karen Van Ooteghem

Accelerometery is commonly used to estimate physical activity, sleep, and sedentary behavior. This study aimed to advance non-wear detection methods by integrating a ‘rate-of-change’ criterion for temperature into a combined temperature-acceleration algorithm.

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Reasons for repeated emergency department visits among community-dwelling older adults with dementia in Ontario, Canada

Reasons for repeated emergency department visits among community-dwelling older adults with dementia in Ontario, Canada

March 2022
Journal: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Lead Authors: Aaron Jones, Laura C. Maclagan

Community-dwelling older adults living with dementia visit the emergency department (ED) more frequently than other older adults, but research on the reasons for repeated visits is lacking. We examined the rate of repeated ED visits and reasons for visits in a cohort of individuals with dementia.

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Potential Unintended Consequences of Antipsychotic Reduction in Ontario Nursing Homes

February 2022
Journal: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Lead Author: Daniel A. Harris

Antipsychotic reduction in nursing homes has been a focus of research and policy attention for several decades; however, there is evidence that these initiatives may have had unintended consequences, such as medication substitution and changes in diagnosis coding. Our objectives were to describe temporal changes in the use of antipsychotics, potential substitution medications, and diagnoses and symptoms used to establish the appropriateness of antipsychotic prescribing.

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Common Data Elements to Facilitate Sharing and Re-use of Participant-Level Data: Assessment of Psychiatric Comorbidity Across Brain Disorders

February 2022
Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Lead Author: Anthony L. Vaccarino

The Ontario Brain Institute’s “Brain-CODE” is a large-scale informatics platform designed to support the collection, storage and integration of diverse types of data across several brain disorders as a means to understand underlying causes of brain dysfunction and developing novel approaches to treatment. To help achieve their goals, consensus methodology was used to identify a set of core demographic and clinical variables that should be routinely collected across all participating programs. This process is explained here. Results are also presented using selected common data elements pooled across three studies to better understand psychiatric comorbidity in neurological disease.

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Trends in Health Service Use for Canadian Adults With Dementia and Parkinson Disease During the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Trends in Health Service Use for Canadian Adults With Dementia and Parkinson Disease During the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic

January 2022
Journal: JAMA Health Forum
Lead Author: Susan E. Bronskill

Was the COVID-19 pandemic associated with changes in health service use and mortality among community-dwelling people living with dementia and Parkinson disease compared with older adults? This study examines this important question and helps determine the disruptions in care experienced by this population in the early part of the pandemic.

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Contribution of rare variant associations to neurodegenerative disease presentation

September 2021
Journal: NPJ Genomic Medicine
Lead Author: Allison A. Dilliott

Genetic factors contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. However, much in this area is still poorly understood. Previous studies have attempted to fill the gaps by performing studies with individual disease groups. This ONDRI study used a custom designed ONDRI gene panel to explore genetic overlap across the neurodegenerative diseases.

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Association of apolipoprotein E variation with cognitive impairment across multiple neurodegenerative diagnoses

September 2021
Journal: Neurobiology of Aging
Lead Author: Allison A. Dilliott

The mapping of the DNA sequence of the entire human genome has resulted in enormous strides in our understanding of diseases and, in some cases, their pre-determined genetic trajectories. A new ONDRI study, published by Dilliott et al , explores the relationship of a protein (APOE) – well known to be associated with Alzheimer’s Disease – to cognitive impairment across several neurodegenerative diseases. ​

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MRI-visible perivascular space volumes, sleep duration and daytime dysfunction in adults with cerebrovascular disease

May 2021
Journal: Sleep Medicine
Lead Author: Joel Ramirez

Cerebrospinal fluid (csf) flows through the brain, particularly during sleep, and serves a waste clearing function. The size or volume of the space around the brain’s blood vessels (perivascular space) is an indicator of the degree of csf flow – the higher the volume, the more likely the dysfunction in this clearing mechanism. This research, which uses ONDRI’s Foundational study data, tested whether larger than normal perivascular space volumes were associated with compensatory individual sleep behaviours.​

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Bilingualism in Parkinson’s disease: Relationship to cognition and quality of life

April 2021
Journal: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Lead Author: Keera N. Fishman

It has long been believed that speaking more than one language on a regular basis may help boost brain function and possibly preserve the brain as it ages. This ONDRI study was designed to help determine whether bilingualism is associated with cognitive advantages or better wellbeing in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

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Improved Segmentation of the Intracranial and Ventricular Volumes in Populations with Cerebrovascular Lesions and Atrophy Using 3D CNNs

February 2021
Journal: Neuroinformatics
Lead Author: Emmanuel E. Ntiri

Successful segmentation of different parts of brain images is of critical importance when studying neurodegeneration through neuroimaging. We compared several robust algorithms that use their own unique methodologies to achieve this segmentation. Our own models were tested on a large dataset of older adults with varying degrees of cerebrovascular lesions and degeneration. Our resulting multi-contrast models outperformed other methods across many of the evaluation metrics.

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Multisite Comparison of MRI Defacing Software Across Multiple Cohorts

February 2021
Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Lead Author: Athena E. Theyers

With improvements to both scan quality and facial recognition software, there is an increased risk of participants being identified by a 3D render of their structural neuroimaging scans, even when all other personal information has been removed. To prevent this, facial features should be removed before data are shared or openly released. While there are several publicly available software algorithms to do this, there has been no comprehensive review of their accuracy within the general population. This paper addresses this need, through cross-collaboration with Ontario Brain Institute’s CAN-BIND and POND programs.

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Cortical Thickness Estimation in Individuals With Cerebral Small Vessel Disease, Focal Atrophy, and Chronic Stroke Lesions

December 2020
Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Co-Lead Authors: Miracle Ozzoude, Joel Ramirez

Local changes to cortical thickness can indicate disease progression. For people living with neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), cortical thickness changes can be estimated using specialized neuroimaging software. However, the presence of stroke and cerebral small vessel disease pose significant challenges to estimate accuracy. The main goal of this study was to examine a correction procedure developed for enhancing FreeSurfer’s (FS’s) cortical thickness estimation tool.

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Sex Differences in Antipsychotic and Benzodiazepine Prescribing Patterns: A Cohort Study of Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents with Dementia in Ontario, Canada

September 2020
Journal: Drugs & Aging
Lead Author: Laura C. Maclagan

In nursing homes, residents with dementia frequently receive potentially inappropriate medications that are associated with an increased risk of adverse events. There are known differences between males and females living with dementia, in terms of clinical presentation and sociodemographic characteristics. Despite this, there have been few studies that have examined sex differences in patterns and predictors of potentially inappropriate medication use.

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Trajectories of health system use and survival for community-dwelling persons with dementia: a cohort study

Trajectories of health system use and survival for community-dwelling persons with dementia: a cohort study

July 2020
Journal: BMJ Open
Lead Author: Susan E. Bronskill

This study found that as people with dementia remained in the community over time, they were more likely to enter long-term care settings than people without dementia, and they used home care services at an increasing rate. The use of other healthcare services appeared stable over time. This work will help health system planners to anticipate and plan for services to meet the needs of people with dementia and their care partners.

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Methods for Improving Screening for Vascular Cognitive Impairment Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment

June 2020
Journal: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences
Lead Author: Khush-Bakht Zaidi

Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) post-stroke is frequent but may go undetected. This highlights the need to better screen cognitive functioning following a stroke. This study examined the utility of using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in detecting cognitive impairment post-stroke.

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Identifying drugs with disease‐modifying potential in Parkinson’s disease using artificial intelligence and pharmacoepidemiology

Identifying drugs with disease‐modifying potential in Parkinson’s disease using artificial intelligence and pharmacoepidemiology

May 2020
Journal: Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
Lead Authors: Laura C. Maclagan, Naomi P. Visanji

Researchers used artificial intelligence paired with real-world Ontario health data to examine drugs that may prevent or slow Parkinson’s disease. Five drugs were identified that may reduce the risk of Parkinson’s disease. These drugs should be prioritized for future research.

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The Quality Assurance and Quality Control Protocol for Neuropsychological Data Collection and Curation in the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative (ONDRI) Study

May 2020
Journal: SAGE Journals
Lead Author: Paula M. McLaughlin

Large research initiatives designed to generate big data on clinical cohorts have become more common. As such, there is an increasing need to establish standard quality assurance (QA; preventing errors) and quality control (QC; identifying and correcting errors) procedures for critical outcome measures. This study describes the QA and QC approach developed and implemented for the neuropsychology data collected as part of the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative study.

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Structural Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Rule Out Comorbid Pathology in the Assessment of Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia: Findings from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative (ONDRI) Study and Clinical Trials Over the Past 10 Years

Structural Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Rule Out Comorbid Pathology in the Assessment of Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia: Findings from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative (ONDRI) Study and Clinical Trials Over the Past 10 Years

February 2020
Journal: IOS Press
Lead Author: Arumina Kapoor

Dementia is often the result of overlapping diseases. This research shows the importance of using brain MRI’s routinely in clinical trials to account for the impact of co-morbid conditions.

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Sex Differences in Care Need and Survival in Patients Admitted to Nursing Home Poststroke

Sex Differences in Care Need and Survival in Patients Admitted to Nursing Home Poststroke

January 2020
Journal: The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences
Lead Author: Amy Y. X. Yu

Women are more likely to be admitted to nursing homes after a stroke than men. This research shows that although women have a lower mortality rate than men after admission to a nursing home, they require more care due to higher rates of pain and depression as well as increased frailty. This study has identified opportunities to improve poststroke care in the nursing home setting.

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Comparison of quality control methods for automated diffusion tensor imaging analysis pipelines

Comparison of quality control methods for automated diffusion tensor imaging analysis pipelines

January 2020
Journal: PLOS One
Lead Author: Seyyed M. H. Mohammed

Large research studies, run out of different labs/locations, can utilize different technologies (e.g. branded equipment). When brain imaging is involved, the output/records, results in huge data files. The processing of these files, to standardize them for analysis, requires extensive programming. To be practical and ensure quality control (QC), this programming takes the form of fully automatic pipelines/algorithms. In this study, three automatic processing pipelines were tested, using brain images from ONDRI participants. A preferred method was selected.

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Genetic Variation in the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative

September 2019
Journal: The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences
Lead Author: Allison A Dilliott

There are changes that can occur within one’s DNA that are quite common in the general population, but which can lead to an increased risk of neurodegeneration. One example of this is the well-known genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) found within the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene. This study examined common APOE gene variants and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene variants and their association with the five ONDRI neurodegenerative diseases.

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Targeted Next-generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Pipeline to Evaluate Genetic Determinants of Constitutional Disease

April 2018
Journal: Journal of Visualized Experiments
Lead Author: Allison A Dilliott

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is quickly changing how to study the genetic causes of certain diseases. Specifically, targeted NGS is able to focus investigations to specific gene regions based on the particular disease being studied. This publication and accompanying video explain the methods used by the ONDRI genomics platform to sequence the DNA of participants using the targeted NGS tool, ONDRISeq.

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Motor Phenotype in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Gait and Balance Platform Study Design Protocol for the Ontario Neurodegenerative Research Initiative (ONDRI)

July 2017
Journal: Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Lead Author: Manuel Montero-Odasso

As part of the Ontario Neurodegenerative Research Initiative (ONDRI), the gait and balance platform is focused on identifying motor-cognitive profiles across five neurodegenerative diseases. This research will help dissect the cognitive and motor contribution in mobility and cognitive decline, progression to dementia syndromes, and future unfavourable outcomes including falls and mortality.

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The Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative (ONDRI)

March 2017
Journal: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences
Lead Author: Sali M K Farhan

A description of ONDRI: an observational study that includes genetic analysis, brain imaging, and assessments of mental processes as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye-tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database.

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The ONDRISeq panel: custom-designed next-generation sequencing of genes related to neurodegeneration

September 2016
Journal: npj Genomic Medicine
Lead Author: Sali M K Farhan

The ONDRI Genomics subgroup is investigating the genetic basis of neurodegeneration. They have developed a customized genetic sequencing tool that targets 80 genes known to be associated with neurodegeneration in DNA that was isolated from participants’ blood samples. This publication outlines how the ONDRISeq panel was designed and its advantages.

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Additional publications supported through ONDRI and OBI funding:

  1. Salzman T, et al: Associations of Multidomain Interventions With Improvements in Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(5):e226744.
  2. Masellis M: What is the most efficient way to diagnose dementia in a young person? World Alzheimer Report 2021, Alzheimer’s Disease International, pg. 283.
  3. Gosse P, Kassardjian Charles D, Masellis M, Mitchell S.: Virtual care for patients with Alzheimer disease and related dementias during the COVID-19 era and beyond. CMAJ, March 15, 2021 193 (11) E371-E377;
  4. Pieruccini-Farria F, Black SE, Masellis M, Smith E, Almeida Q, Li KZH, Bherer L, Camicioli R, Montero-Odasso M, (2021), Gait variability Across neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders: results from the Canadian Consortium of Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) and the Gait and Brain Health.Alzheimers Dement. Published online February 16, 2021.
  5. Shah-Basak PP , Kielar A, Deschamps T, Verhoeff NP, Jokel R, Meltzer J. (2019) Spontaneous oscillatory markers of cognitive status in two forms of dementia. Human Brain Mapping, 40(5):1594-1607.
  6. Kielar A, Shah-Basak PP, Deschamps T, Jokel R, Meltzer JA. (2019) Slowing is slowing: Delayed neural responses to words are linked to abnormally slow resting state activity in Primary Progressive Aphasia.Neuropsychologia, 129:331-347.
  7. Young JA, et al: Expanding current understandings of epistemic injustice and dementia: Learning from stigma theory, J Aging Stud. 2019 Mar;48:76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jaging.2019.01.003. Epub 2019 Feb 1.
  8. Zhang M, et al: Genetic and epigenetic study of an Alzheimer’s disease family with monozygotic triplets, Brain. 2019 Nov 1;142(11):3375-3381.
  9. Popkirov S, et al: Hiding in Plain Sight: Functional Neurological Disorders in the News, J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2019 Fall;31(4):361-367.
  10. Chu RK, et al: Interhemispheric connectivity during lateralized lexical decision, 2019 Feb 15;40(3):818-832.
  11. Robertson AD, Udow SJ, Espay AJ, Merola A, Camicioli R, Lang AE, Masellis M. Orthostatic hypotension and dementia incidence: links and implications. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2019;15:2181-2194
  12. Herrmann N, et al: Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Nabilone for Agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease, The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Volume 27, Issue 11, November 2019, Pages 1161-1173
  13. McCunn P, et al: Reproducibility of Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) in rats at 9.4 Tesla, PLOS ONE, April 2019
  14. Johnston T, et al: Repurposing drugs to treat L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease, Neuropharmacology. 2019 Mar 15;147:11-27. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.05.035.
  15. Duchesne S, et al: Structural and functional multi-platform MRI series of a single human volunteer over more than fifteen years, Sci Data. 2019 Oct 31;6(1):245
  16. Moszczynski A, et al: Synergistic toxicity in an in vivo model of neurodegeneration through the co-expression of human TDP-43(M337V) and tau(T175D) protein, November 2019, Acta Neuropathologica Communications 7(1):170
  17. Potvin O, et al: The Canadian Dementia Imaging Protocol: Harmonization validity for morphometry measurements, Neuroimage Clin. 2019;24:101943.
  18. Duchesne S, et al: The Canadian Dementia Imaging Protocol: Harmonizing National Cohorts, J Magn Reson Imaging. 2019 Feb;49(2):456-465.
  19. Rajalingham R, et al: The clinical significance of lower limb tremors, Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2019 Aug;65:165-171.
  20. Chertkow H, et al: The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia: Canadian Cohort Study, Can J Neurol Sci. 2019 Sep;46(5):499-511. doi: 10.1017/cjn.2019.27. Epub 2019 Jul 16.
  21. Kielar A, Deschamps T, Jokel R, Meltzer JA (2018) Abnormal language-related oscillatory responses in primary progressive aphasia. NeuroImage: Clinical 18:560-574.
  22. Iaboni A, et al: A Palliative Approach to Falls in Advanced Dementia, Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 26:4, April 2018
  23. Warrick N, et al: Care of community-dwelling older adults with dementia and their caregivers, CMAJ 2018 July 3;190:E794-9.
  24. Sapkota et al: Clinical dementia severity associated with ventricular size is differentially moderated by cognitive reserve in men and women, Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy (2018) 10:89
  25. Espay A, et al: Impaired emotion processing in functional (psychogenic) tremor: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study, NeuroImage: Clinical Volume 17, 2018, Pages 179-187
  26. Berkezuk et al: Managing money matters: Managing finances is associated with functional independence in MCI,  Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2018;33:517–522.
  27. Ballerini L, et al: Perivascular Spaces Segmentation in Brain MRI Using Optimal 3D Filtering, SCIENTIFIC Reports | (2018) 8:2132
  28. Kim K, et al: Regulation of myeloid cell phagocytosis by LRRK2 via WAVE2 complex stabilization is altered in Parkinson’s disease, PNAS, May 14, 2018 115 (22) E5164-E5173
  29. Davies et al: Sequential drug treatment algorithm for agitation and aggression in Alzheimer’s and mixed dementia, Journal of Psychopharmacology 32(5)
  30. Nikolova, Y.S., Misquitta, K.A., Rocco, B.R. et al. Shifting priorities: highly conserved behavioral and brain network adaptations to chronic stress across species. Transl Psychiatry 8, 26 (2018).
  31. Moszczynski AJ, et al: Somatic Gene Transfer Using a Recombinant Adenoviral Vector (rAAV9) Encoding Pseudophosphorylated Human Thr(175) Tau in Adult Rat Hippocampus Induces Tau Pathology, J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2018 Aug 1;77(8):685-695.
  32. Dilliott A, et al: Targeted Next-generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Pipeline to Evaluate Genetic Determinants of Constitutional Disease, J Vis Exp. 2018 Apr 4;(134):57266. doi: 10.3791/57266.
  33. Freedman M, et al: The Toronto Cognitive Assessment (TorCA): normative data and validation to detect amnestic mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimers Res Ther. 2018 Jul 18;10(1):65. doi: 10.1186/s13195-018-0382-y.
  34. Huang E, et al: PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of LETM1 regulates mitochondrial calcium transport and protects neurons against mitochondrial stress, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | 8: 1399 |DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-01435-1| www.nature.com/naturecommunications
  35. Lam B, et al, Characterizing familial corticobasal syndrome due to Alzheimer’s disease pathology and PSEN1 mutations, Alzheimer’s & Dementia Volume 13, Issue 5, May 2017, Pages 520-530
  36. Moszczynski A, et al, Thr(175)-phosphorylated tau induces pathologic fibril formation via GSK3 beta-mediated phosphorylation of Thr(231) in vitro, Neurobiology of Aging, Volume 36, Issue 3, March 2015, Pages 1590-1599
  37. Jahani-Asl, A, et al, Thr(175)-phosphorylated tau induces pathologic fibril formation via GSK3 beta-mediated phosphorylation of Thr(231) in vitro, Human Molecular Genetics, 2015, Vol. 24, No. 16
  38. Lam B, et al.: Clinical, imaging, and pathological heterogeneity of the Alzheimer’s disease syndrome. Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy 2013, 5:1.